Difference between revisions of "Scaling Tendencies"

From wiki.olisystems.com
Jump to: navigation, search
(Scaling Tendency and Pre-scaling Tendency in OLI Software)
(What is Scaling?)
Line 1: Line 1:
 
===What is Scaling?===
 
===What is Scaling?===
  
Scaling is the deposition of a mineral salt on processing equipment. Scaling is a result
+
Scaling is the deposition of a mineral salt on processing equipment. Scaling is a result of supersaturation of mineral ions in the process fluid. Through changes in temperature, or solvent evaporation or degasification, the concentration of salts may exceed the saturation, leading to a precipitation of solids (usually crystals).
of supersaturation of mineral ions in the process fluid. Through changes in temperature, or solvent evaporation or degasification, the concentration of salts may exceed the saturation, leading to a precipitation of solids (usually crystals).
+
  
'''Solubility Product Constant, K_sp'''
 
The solubility of ionic compounds of salts and minerals in water are governed by a solubility equilibrium expression and a solubility product constant known as K_sp. It is important to note that the solubility product, K_sp is a function of both temperature and pressure. Consider the general dissolution reaction below (in aqueous solutions):
 
  
aA_((s))⇌bB_((aq))+dD_((aq))
+
'''Solubility Product Constant, K<sub>sp</sub>'''
  
With equilibrium constant K_sp defined as:
+
The solubility of ionic compounds of salts and minerals in water are governed by a solubility equilibrium expression and a solubility product constant known as K<sub>sp</sub>. It is important to note that the solubility product, K<sub>sp</sub> is a function of both temperature and pressure. Consider the general dissolution reaction below (in aqueous solutions):
K_sp=〖(a〗_B )^b  ∙(a_D )^d
+
  
Where, a_B and a_D are the activities of the aqueous species. The activity of any species i is defined as the product of its concentration in molality by its corresponding activity coefficient:
+
aA<sub>(s)</sub>⇌bB<sub>(aq)</sub>+dD<sub>(aq)</sub>
  
a_i=m_i γ_i
+
With equilibrium constant K<sub>sp</sub> defined as:
 +
 
 +
K<sub>sp</sub>=(''a''<sub>B</sub>)<sup>b</sup>∙(''a''<sub>D</sub>)<sup>d</sup>
 +
 
 +
Where, ''a''<sub>B</sub> and ''a''<sub>D</sub> are the activities of the aqueous species. The activity of any species i is defined as the product of its concentration in molality by its corresponding activity coefficient:
 +
 
 +
''a''<sub>i</sub>=m<sub>i</sub> γ<sub>i</sub>
  
 
'''Ion Activity Product, IAP'''
 
'''Ion Activity Product, IAP'''
A real solution may not be in the state of equilibrium. This non-equilibrium state is described by the ion activity product (IAP). It has the same form as the equilibrium constant K_sp, but involves the actual activities of the species in solution.  
+
 
IAP=(a_B )_actual^b∙ (a_D )_actual^d
+
A real solution may not be in the state of equilibrium. This non-equilibrium state is described by the ion activity product (IAP). It has the same form as the equilibrium constant K<sub>sp</sub>, but involves the actual activities of the species in solution.
 +
 +
IAP=(''a''<sub>B</sub>)<sup>b</sup><sub>actual</sub>∙(''a''<sub>D</sub>)<sup>d</sup><sub>actual</sub>
  
 
==Scaling Tendency and Scaling Index==
 
==Scaling Tendency and Scaling Index==

Revision as of 14:18, 22 May 2019

Contents

What is Scaling?

Scaling is the deposition of a mineral salt on processing equipment. Scaling is a result of supersaturation of mineral ions in the process fluid. Through changes in temperature, or solvent evaporation or degasification, the concentration of salts may exceed the saturation, leading to a precipitation of solids (usually crystals).


Solubility Product Constant, Ksp

The solubility of ionic compounds of salts and minerals in water are governed by a solubility equilibrium expression and a solubility product constant known as Ksp. It is important to note that the solubility product, Ksp is a function of both temperature and pressure. Consider the general dissolution reaction below (in aqueous solutions):

aA(s)⇌bB(aq)+dD(aq)

With equilibrium constant Ksp defined as:

Ksp=(aB)b∙(aD)d

Where, aB and aD are the activities of the aqueous species. The activity of any species i is defined as the product of its concentration in molality by its corresponding activity coefficient:

ai=mi γi

Ion Activity Product, IAP

A real solution may not be in the state of equilibrium. This non-equilibrium state is described by the ion activity product (IAP). It has the same form as the equilibrium constant Ksp, but involves the actual activities of the species in solution.

IAP=(aB)bactual∙(aD)dactual

Scaling Tendency and Scaling Index

Scaling Tendency (Reported in the OLI software as Post-Scale)

The Scaling Tendency (ST) is defined as the ratio of the Ion Activity Product (IAP) divided by the equilibrium constant (K_sp).

ST=IAP/K_sp

Scaling tendencies are essentially saturation ratios. Thus, if

ST < 1 Indicates sub-saturation, and the solid is not expected to form ST = 1 Indicates saturation, and the solid is in equilibrium with water ST> 1 Indicates supersaturation, and solids will form

Note: The Scaling Tendency (ST) is reported in the software as Post-Scale.


The Scale Index (SI) (aka: Saturation Index in the literature), is given by the following relationship:

SI =log_10⁡(IAP/K_sp ) Thus, if SI < 0 Indicates sub-saturation, and the solid is not expected to form SI = 0 Indicates saturation, and the solid is in equilibrium with water SI> 0 Indicates supersaturation, and solids will form Note: The Scaling Index (SI) is reported in the software as SI, Index


Pre-Scaling Tendency (Reported in the software as Pre-Scale)

OLI software defines a Pre-Scaling tendency as the scaling tendency before solids precipitate. The Pre-scaling tendency is calculated the same as the Post-scaling tendency:

ST = IAP/Ksp


Pre-Scaling Index (Reported in the software as SI, Index)

Pre-Scale Index (SI) is the log value of the Pre-Scaling Tendency (PST):

PSTI = Log (PST)

Note: Many industries, notably the up-stream oil & gas industry, use the pre-scaling tendency to make design decisions about adding anti-scaling and anti-fouling agents or if the asset is as risk.


Difference between Post-scale and Pre-scale

  • Pre-Scale: The saturation ratio before solids precipitate.
  • Post-Scale: The saturation ratio AFTER solids precipitate (if solids are selected).
  • S, ST – Saturation, Scale Tendency: The ratio of the concentration (activity) to its solubility (S=1).
  • SI – Scale Index: Log(S).


Scaling Tendency is the saturation ratio after all potential solids come to equilibrium with water. This is the true equilibrium condition (time=∞). In OLI Software the Scaling Tendencies are reported under the name of Post-Scaling.

Pre-scaling Tendency represents the condition before any solids are allowed to form. This is a non-equilibrium condition and can be viewed as the condition where time=0.


Calculating Scaling Tendency: An Example

Below there is an example of how the software calculates the Scaling Tendency. Consider the dissolution of sodium bicarbonate:

NaHCO3(s) = Na+ + HCO3-


Scaling Tendency is defined as ST = IAP/Ksp


Where IAP is the Ion Activity Product, and is defined as the product of specific ions (in this case the ions resulting from the dissociation of a particular solid); and Ksp is the Solubility Product Constant which gives the thermodynamic limit of ion availability.


Let’s consider a 1.0 molal NaHCO3 solution. The IAP is calculated as follows:

IAP = [gammaNa+]*[mNa+]*[gammaHCO3-]*[mHCO3-]


Assuming Ideal Solution Activities:


gammaNa+ = 1.0

gammaHCO3- = 1.0

mNa+ = 1.0

mHCO3- = 1.0


Then,

IAP = (1.0)(1.0)(1.0)(1.0)

IAP = 1.0


Defining the Ksp


Ksp = [gammaNa+]*[mNa+]*[gammaHCO3-]*[mHCO3-]

Ksp = 0.403780


The Scaling Tendency is then the ratio of available ions to the thermodynamic limit:


ST = IAP/Ksp

ST = 1.0/0.403780

ST = 2.48


Was assuming ideal conditions valid?? The actual species concentration and activity coefficients (calculated by the OLI software) are:


gammaNa+ = 0.598

gammaHCO3- = 0.596

mNa+ = 0.894

mHCO3- = 0.866


This results in a different IAP:


IAP= (0.598)(0.894)(0.596)(0.866)

IAP=0.276


The new Scaling Tendency is the following:

ST = IAP/Ksp

ST = 0.276/0.40378

ST = 0.683